Carbon Capture and Storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial processes and transporting and permanently storing it underground. CCS is recognized as a key technology in reducing greenhouse gas emissions around the world by many national and global organizations such as the U.S. Government Accountability Office, the International Energy Agency (IEA), and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). CCS can help mitigate climate change by offering both immediate decarbonization benefits and a long-term solution to reach and maintain carbon neutrality. In fact, according to a report by Energy Futures Initiative and Stanford University, CCS in California could reduce emissions in the state by as much as 15%.

CCS involves three major steps: 1.) capturing CO2 at the source, 2.) compressing it for transportation and 3.) injecting it deep into a rock formation where it is safely and permanently stored and monitored.


Capture: Multiple technologies have been developed to separate CO2 from industrial flue gases and other gases produced at facilities such as power plants, refineries, and processing plants. These facilities are commonly retro-fitted, capturing a substantial portion of the targeted CO2, and enabling them to continue operating with significantly lower CO2 – with the goal of net-negative emissions.


Transportation: After CO2 is captured, it is transported for permanent underground injection. Transportation is commonly done by truck or pipeline. CO2 transport is a safe and well-established process using proven technology. More than 50 pipelines stretch 5,000 miles across the US, transporting more than 60 million tons of CO2 annually.


Storage: CO2 is injected into deep underground rock formations at depths of about a mile. These storage-capable formations include depleted reservoirs as well as deep saline aquifers and are defined by permeable “injection zones” capped by thick impermeable rock to permanently store the injected CO2. Permanent storage will be monitored long-term with oversight by local, state and federal regulatory agencies.

Full Scope Net Zero
Full Scope Net Zero

California Resources Corporation’s (CRC) carbon management business, Carbon TerraVault, includes a series of proposed CCS projects that will inject CO2 from industrial sources into storage reservoirs and permanently store CO2 deep underground. CCS provides a real solution for reaching and maintaining carbon neutrality, and helping California meet the emissions reduction goals under the Paris Climate Accord.